Digitised Legal Documents from the Indo-Persian World

Letter of Ahilyabai Holkar to Khando Baburao about informing landlords of fines imposed by tax collectors

Responding to the petition of local landlords Dulerao Mandloi and Tejkaran Mandloi, Maratha queen Ahilyabai Holkar instructs the revenue collector (kamavisdar) of district (pargana) Indore that in keeping with existing practice, the landlords ought to be informed of any fines that are exacted.

Functional document type: Letters

Formal document type: Patra

Themes: Administration, Money, Petitioning, Women

Suhur calendar: 25 Safar 1186
Gregorian calendar: 29 December 1785

[Page 1r]

invocation (top): Marathi



main text: Marathi

11 अखंडीत लक्ष्मी आलंकृत
2राजमान्य2 राजश्री खंडो बाबुराव क||र प|| इंदुर गो|| स्न|| आहील्याबाई
दंडवत सु|| सीत समानैन मया
4व अलफ दुलेराव मंडलोईतेजकर्ण
प|| म||र यानी सरकारात येऊन
6वीनंती केली की सुदामत पासोन फ-
7रोई जे करणे ते आमचे ईताल्याने करावी
8आसी वहिवट चालत आली असता हली
9मामलेदार आम्हास दाखला देत नाहीत
10यैवीषई ताकीद जाली पाहीजे म्हणोन
11त्यावरून हे पत्र सादर केले असे तरी
12तुम्ही येवीषईचा मागील वलवटा
13मनास आणुन पेशजी पासोन फरोई मंड-
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14लोई म||र याचे ईतल्याने होत आली
15आसोन अलिकडे होत नसल्यास मागील
16वहीवाटी प्रमाणे पुढेही याचे ईतल्या-
17ने फरोईचे काम करीत जाणे जाणीजे
18छ २५ सफर बहुत काय लिहीणे मोर्तब सुद

1Salutations. [To the] Master Adorned by Boundless Wealth,
2honored by kings, [and] Rajashri Khando Baburao, kamavisdar of pargana Indore, [from the] affectionate Ahilyabai
, salutations. In the year six eighty one hundred
4and one thousand [1186], Dulerao Mandloi and Tejkaran
of the aforementioned pargana came to the government
6and petitioned that out of good order, the fines
7that are to be imposed should be imposed with our understanding.
8Such a practice having been ongoing, these days
9the mamledars do not give us evidence [of these fines].
10Regarding this, a warning must be issued so
11on this basis, this patra has been prepared. Therefore,
12bring this former practice
13to mind, and if previously the fines3
14took place with the understanding of the aforementioned Mandlois,
15[and] now are not taking place [with their understanding], then
16in accordance with former practice, henceforth too with their understanding
17the work of the fines ought to be conducted. Take notice.
18On the lunar date of 25 Safar. Why write more? [Ovular black ink seal] Prepared.

clerical notes (right margin): Marathi




1. The standalone 'द' is known as a दकार, or dakar, in the Marathi epistolographic tradition. Molesworth states that it stands for the salutation दंडवत, or dandavat, which an inferior would use when writing to a superior, for example if a non-Brahman writes to a Brahman. However, it has also been observed that a shloka attributed to the Yadava minister Hemadripant recommends this salutation when writing to anyone for whom one feels affection, which may be a more appropriate reading in this case. For further discussion with respect to a late-eighteenth century letter from Peshwa Madhavrao Narayan to the Dutch VOC, see Bellarykar, "Two Marathi Letters," p. 26-7. [BACK]

2. Beginning here, the text is elevated as a mark of respect to the recipient of the letter. [BACK]

3. From here the main text continues on the verso. [BACK]

an honorific of royal dignity routinely applied in Marathi documents to any person deserving of courtesy and respect (occasionally used in Rajasthani documents)

head revenue collector at the district level (Predominantly refers to said collectors in the eighteenth-century Maratha empire. See Gordon, "The Slow Conquest.")



district-level revenue collector

letter or document


Issuer: Ahilyabai Holkar
Recipient: Khando Baburao




Mandloi Family Collection, Shri Samsthan Bada Raola Indore, no shelfmark
Archival Collection: Indore Mandloi collection

Transcribed from manuscript image.

Edited by Dominic Vendell

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