Digitised Legal Documents from the Indo-Persian World

Order of an employee of Dara Shukoh to Purshottam Das and Paras Ram about payments and pursuit of outlaws

The landlord (chaudhri) Purshottam Das and record-keeper (qanungo) Paras Ram are updated about the ongoing actions against two outlaw warriors (girasiya) who have been harassing the peasants. They are further instructed to pay taxes and clear the tax arrears in district (pargana) Dhar.1

Functional document type: Orders

Formal document type: Parvana

Themes: Agriculture, Peasants, Policing and Crime, Soldiers, Taxation and Tribute

Julus calendar: 29
Hijri-qamri calendar: 1066
Gregorian calendar: 1655 – 1656

[Page 1r]

invocation (top centre): Arabic

الله اکبر

God is great

main text: Persian

1خطی که زبده الاقران چودهری پرسوتمداس و پرسرام قانونگوی
2مشتمل بر حقیقت اکهی بهان و اودی سنگه گراسیه ها بجمعت همکن قریب سی سوار که
3بحال رعایا مزاحمت می رساند و سواری نمودن رفعت پناه محمد عاقل و شجعات دستگاه
4هرناته سنگه بچهار فوج و رسیدن خواجه نندلعل بر اودی سنگه گراسیه و بجهنم رسیدن
5دو سوار از آن گراسیه و بکار آمدن چهار سوار از آن هرناته سنگه و اخبارات جوانب
6و اطراف فرستاده بودید رسید مضمون معلوم گردید یقین که تا حال رفعت و اقبال پناه خان جیو
7و شجعات دستگاه هرناته سنگه فکر گراسیه ها براصل نموده باشد و شما نیز درگشت سواری
8دیه بدهی و تردد آن فرصت ندهند که مجرای خدمت بظهور آید و آنها چه وجود اند
9و چه جمعیت دارند که مزاحمت بحال رعایا توانند رسانید از مقدمان دیه بدهی مچلکه بگیرد
10که در رقبه هر کس عبور نماند و خبر نکند مجرم بکار گردد از این چنین تردد زود کشته خواهد شد
11یا کناره می گیرند و نیز در باب توجیه شروع نمودن از اجناس مشنگ و کتان و تیله گرگیهون نشان می برند
12نویشته بودید نیم مفهوم انجامید هرگاه که در سال گذشته آفت کلیه بود با وجود آن یازده هزار و سی صد روپیه
13[کژی] زیاده مطابق نوشته عزت آثار خواجه بهاگمل کروری توجیه شده بود درین سال که بانعایت الهی و
14اقبال لایزال والا زراعت فصل ربیع ایت یل خوب و بلا آفت است نه هزار روپیه
15توجهی قرار داده اینمعنی چه دور از حساب است لایق آنکه نظر بر موجودات داشته و تخمیناً
16دیه بدهی بی کم زیاده که بعد پرتال تفاوت ظاهر شود توجیه قرار دهند نوعی نماند که ستم
17شریکی واقع نگردد و گردوآری مال سرکار فیض آثار بر وقت شود و تمام مدار فصل ربیع مذکور
18بر جسن گندم و جو و کوکنار است مطابق موجودات بعمل خواهد آمد در این باب زیاده چه نوشته شود

1The letter that the Eminent among Contemporaries Purshottam Das and Paras Ram qanungo had written
2containing the facts about Akhai Bhan and Udai Singh, girasiyas [who] together with their body of companions [of] around thirty horsemen
3had caused trouble to the peasants; and [about] the mounting [taking action] against them by the Exalted Refuge Muhammad Aqil and the Location of Bravery
4Harnath Singh with four regiments; and [about] the arrival of Khwaja Nand Lal to the girasiya Udai Singh, and the arrival in hell of
5two horsemen from that girasiya; and [about] the using up [death] of four horsemen of that Harnath Singh; and the news about the parts
6and quarters [where] you had sent [searched] is received. By its contents you informed [us] that surely by now the Exalted and Glorious Refuge Khan Jiu2
7and Location of Bravery Harnath Singh must have found the root of the problem of the girasiyas. And you too in patrolling
8from village by village, and in those labours, do not give [them] any relief. Your responsibility should be obvious. [Find out] what the situation is, [and]
9what gathering [forces] they have such that they can cause disturbance to the peasants. Take muchalkas from the muqaddams
10that if somebody crosses their area and they do not inform, then they will be committing crimes. By such efforts they [the girasiyas] will be quickly killed
11or set aside. And in the matter of commencing [of agriculture], out of the crops of mushang grains,3 cotton, linseed, [linseed oil, [and] wheat] that were indicated,
12[in what] you had written, [only] half were understood. Even though there was a calamity with the harvest in the past year, nevertheless 11,300 rupees
13extra according to the writing of the honourable karori Khwaja Bhagmal had been assessed. In this year that by the blessing of God and
14the endless prosperity of [his] majesty, the agriculture of the spring harvest of the dog year is good and without calamity. [However, only] 9,000 rupees
15have been sent. What this means is hard to reckon. It is appropriate that paying attention to the present circumstances and by a
16village-by-village appraisal, an assessment should be settled without the discrepancy of shortage or surplus that is exposed after an audit. Specifically, it should be shown that
17[you] have not become a party to wrong-doing. And the collection of the taxes of the blessed government should be on time. And the complete focus of crops of the said harvest
18[should be on] wheat and barley and opium. According to these circumstances, bring it to action. What more is there to write in this matter?

authorisation (right margin): Persian

[داس] بنده شاه بلند اقبال ۲۹ ۱۰۶۶

[Round black ink seal] [Das], servant of Shah Buland Iqbal [in the year] 29 [or] 10664

[Page 1v]

clerical notes (top right): Persian

1پروانه وزارت پناه
2رای انند [بزرگ] جیو
3[بنابر] موات [جنگ]
4اودی سنگه گراسیه5

1Parvana of the Refuge of the Ministry
2Rai Anand [Buzorg] Jiu
3[regarding] the [battle] death of
4Udai Singh girasiya

later addition (top centre): Persian

نمبر ۱۰

Number 10


1. For more context on this document, see Munis Faruqui, The Princes of the Mughal Empire, p. 96. [BACK]

2. In all likelihood, this refers to Muhammad Aqil. [BACK]

3. Often glossed as an unspecified type of grain, mushang likely refers to a type of pea, either field peas or cowpeas. [BACK]

4. Since the document is otherwise undated, based on the year in the seal it was issued in or after 1066 Hijri, i.e. 1655–56 in the Gregorian calendar. Seals were often used for for years after they were issued, so it is possible this document was issued after this date, but most likely before Dara Shukoh's death in 1659. [BACK]

5. Although at first glance this clerical note appears as one line, the slight stacking of elements and sense suggests it should be read as four lines, starting with the line farthest to the left when the text is viewed rightside up. [BACK]

record-keeper (similar to deshpande)

outlaw warrior (a marginal military group, possibly of mixed Rajput and Bhil ancestry)

outlaw warrior (a marginal military group, possibly of mixed Rajput and Bhil ancestry)

outlaw warrior (a marginal military group, possibly of mixed Rajput and Bhil ancestry)

outlaw warrior (a marginal military group, possibly of mixed Rajput and Bhil ancestry)

a bond or agreement, esp. to perform some action for the government

village headman

outlaw warrior (a marginal military group, possibly of mixed Rajput and Bhil ancestry)

Revenue head of the Mughal Imperial household domains (possibly also a noble's diwan, see N.A. Siddiqi, Land Revenue Administration under the Mughals)


an honorific added to a name or title to show respect

outlaw warrior (a marginal military group, possibly of mixed Rajput and Bhil ancestry)


Recipient: Purshottam Das
Recipient: Paras Ram




Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah, LNS 235 MS i
Archival Collection: Purshottam Das collection

Transcribed from manuscript image.

Edited by Nandini Chatterjee

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