Digitised Legal Documents from the Indo-Persian World

Order of Wazir Khan about the rights and obligations of Hariram's guarantors after he absconded

Wazir Khan orders that since Hariram, landlord (chaudhri) of district Amjhera, failed to turn up to pay the spring season's taxes, his possessions now belong to his guarantors Purshottam Das, Paras Ram, and others. The guarantors are obliged to make the revenue payments for the district.

Functional document type: Orders

Formal document type: Parvana

Themes: Desertion and Depopulation, Property, Taxation and Tribute

Julus calendar: 7 Zi al-qaʿda 9
Hijri-qamri calendar: 7 Zi al-qaʿda 1076
Gregorian calendar: 11 May 1666

[Page 1r]

invocation (top centre): Arabic

هو المستعان

He [God] is the one from whom help is begged

main text: Persian

1چون هریرام چودهری امجهره از روی کوته اندیشی و شوره پشتی در
2عین تحصیل ربیع غیر حاضر شده و پرسوتم داس چودری و پرسرام
3قانونگوی دهار و بلرام و مکرند چودری و تلسیداس قانونگوی پرگنه کنپیل
4و بلرام قانونگوی نعلجه که ضامنان او بهمه جهت بودند متعهد ادای
5مالواجبی و پرداخت آینده پرگنه مسطور شده اند و ظاهر نمودند که
6خود کاشته و مال و مواشی و انعام و اکرام چودری فراری در آنجا ست
7که بحسب شرع و عرف بضامنان تعلق دارد لهذا مُقرر شُد که در آنجا هر چه
8از مال و متاع او نشان [پاند] متصرف شوند بشرطی که از تیر و مضرتی
9بحال و مال [ریزه] رعیت نرسانند و در مالواجبی و پرداخت محلمزبور
10مقید شوند و موافق تعهدات بعمل آورند درینباب مطابق مسطور مقرر شناسند
11فی تاریخ هفتم ۷ ذی قعده سنه ۹ از جلوس والا قلمی شد فقط

1Since Hariram chaudhri of Amjhera has absconded
2due to disobedience and short-sightedness in the middle of the tax collection of the Rabiʿ [harvest], Purshottam Das chaudhri and Paras Ram
3qanungo of Dhar, and Balram and Makarand chaudhri and Tulsi Das qanungo of district Kanpil [Kampel],
4and Balram1 qanungo of Nalcha, who were his guarantors in all respects, were bound to make
5the payment of the land taxes and the future payments of the said district. And they declared that
6the self-cultivated lands, tax [proceeds], animals, inʿam and other favours of the absconding chaudhri [which] are there
7belong to the guarantors by shariʿa and custom. Therefore it is decided that whatever is there
8of his [the absconder’s] property and remaining possessions, may be confiscated [by the guarantors] on the condition that by force and injury
9they do not diminish the situation and property of the cultivators. And they shall be obligated for the land taxes and other payments of the aforementioned mahal
10and work according to the agreements. They should know this matter to be settled as written.
11Written on the seventh 7th day of Zi al-qaʿda of the year 9 of the elevated reign. Nothing further.

authorisation (right margin): Persian

حسب [المسطور] عمل نماید
وزیر خان مرید بادشاه علمگیر ۱۰۷۰

According [to the writing,] implement it.
[Round black ink seal] Wazir Khan disciple of Badshah Alamgir 1070

[Page 1v]

clerical notes (middle right): Persian

بتاریخ ۷ شهر ذی قعده سنه ۹ جلوس والا نقل گرفته شد

Copy taken on the date 7 Zi al-qaʿda year 9 of the elevated reign


1. Although they have been tagged as the same person, it is unclear whether this Balram is the same as the Balram above, or there are two different officials named Balram, or if the scribe made an error in listing Balram twice. [BACK]

landlord (similar to desai, deshmukh)


landlord (similar to desai, deshmukh)

record-keeper (similar to deshpande)

landlord (similar to desai, deshmukh)

record-keeper (similar to deshpande)

record-keeper (similar to deshpande)

reward, grant of tax-free land

landlord (similar to desai, deshmukh)

Islamic law

a revenue district or set of villages

emperor (alternately, padshah)


Issuer: Wazir Khan
Guarantor: Purshottam Das
Guarantor: Paras Ram
Guarantor: Balram
Guarantor: Makarand
Guarantor: Tulsi Das




Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah, LNS 235 MS f1
Archival Collection: Purshottam Das collection

Transcribed from manuscript image.

Edited by Nandini Chatterjee and Elizabeth Thelen

Encoding support and website development by Lizzy Williamson, Eva Bodenschatz, Richard Holding, Julia Hopkin and Gary Stringer