Digitised Legal Documents from the Indo-Persian World

Declaration of Anwar Beg and Sayyid Azam that they have no claims on trees in Sahib Rai's garden

Anwar Beg and Sayyid Azam had made a claim on some mango trees in Sahib Rai’s garden. In the absence of documents, the claim was not proved, and the claimants made a declaration (iqrar) in the court of the judge (qazi) in front of landlords (zamindar) and record-keepers (qanungo) and wrote a quittance deed (farigh-khatti) to that effect.

Functional document type: Private Deeds

Formal document type: Farigh Khatti, Iqrar

Themes: Agriculture, Disputes, Gardens and Orchards, Property

Fasli calendar: 19 Ramzan 1195
Samvat calendar: 1845
Gregorian calendar: 1787

[Page 1r]

invocation (top centre): Persian



main text: Persian

1غرض از این نوشته آنکه منکه انور بیگ ولد حیات بیگ و سید اعظم ایم چنانچه
2بموجب ورقه خود دعوی درختان آنبه
3در باغ صاحب رای ولد دیانت رای نموده بودیم که پنج درختان
4وغیره مایان در مذکور مومن الیه هستند موافق گفته اینجانب مشارالیه
5سند درختان مزبور خواستند که سند آنبه ها از نزد خود
6بر آورده بیارند تا اشجار آنبه بگیرند آنچه از نزد بنده
7اسناد [حاضر] نشده تا بنده باطل شد بنابرین
8در محکمه پیش شریعت پناه فارخطی نوشته داده شد
9که آینده دعوه اشجارها نمایم باطل است بنابران
10قبل زمینداران و قانوگویان پرتاب چند و گلاب رای و
11[پنجان] و اقرار کرده می آید که آینده هیچ مناقشه
12و خرخشه نیست و نمانده لهذا اینچند کلمه بموجب فارخطی
13نوشته داده شد که ثانیاً حال سند باشد تحریر
14فی تاریخ نوزدهم ماه رمضان المبارک سنه ۱۱۹۵1 فصلی
15یکهزار یکصد نود و پنج فصلی سمت یکهزار هشت صد ۱۸۴۵2
16چهل و پنج تحریر شد

1The reason for writing this text is this, that we, Anwar Beg, son of Hayat Beg, and Sayyid Azam,
2had made a claim based on some documents to mango trees
3in the garden of Sahib Rai, son of Dianat Rai, [specifically] that five trees,
4etc., in the aforementioned place are ours. As said, the aforementioned person [Sahib Rai]
5asked to see the sanad of the aforesaid trees. [He said] that [if] we
6brought the documents, we could take the trees. Since
7the documents could not be presented, we were [our claim was] voided. On the basis of this,
8in the court of the qazi, a farkhati was written and given
9that if we make any claims to the trees in future, it will be void. On this basis,
10in front of zamindars and qanungos Pratap Chand and Gulab Rai and
11[the panchayat] and an iqrar was made that henceforth there is no quarrel
12nor will it remain. Therefore, these few words were written as a farkhati
13[so] that it be a record for the future.
14On the 19th of the month of Ramzan Mubarak in the year 1195 Fasli,
15[or] one thousand nine hundred and five Fasli, [or] Samvat 1845 one thousand eight hundred
16forty-five,3 it was written.

witness (right margin): Hindi

1चौ परतापचंद धार

2 सा ठकरानी मिसरी बाई गुलाब राय प्र धार

3 सा लाल हीराचंद

4 सा राय राय

5 सा

1Witness: Chaudhri Pratap Chand Dhar

2Witness: Thakurani Misri Bai, Thakur Gulab Rai, pargana Dhar

3Witness: Lal Hira Chand

4Witness: [Salam] Rai Rai


endorsements (bottom right margin): Persian

2میرزا انور بیک ولد حیات بیک و سید اعظم4
3ساکن پیران دهار

1The slaves5
2Mirza Anwar Beg son of Hayat Beg and Sayyid Azam,
3residents of Piran-i Dhar6


1. Unusually, the scribe has written the numbers from right to left, instead of the typical left to right order of numerals in Persian. [BACK]

2. As in the Fasli year above, here too, the scribe has written the numbers from right to left. [BACK]

3. Per ephemeris tables, the 19th of Ramzan during the Samvat-chaitradi year of 1845 fell on 23 June 1788. [BACK]

4. The word 'سید' is written as an insertion above the line of text. [BACK]

5. The expression al-ʿabd literally means 'the slaves' but was used to indicate a countersignature or the signature of the parties making the declaration. [BACK]

6. Piran, literally 'holy men' is a short form of a common ephithet for the town of Dhar, meaning the abode of the light of the holy men. [BACK]

generically, a document

Islamic judge

no-claims deed


record-keeper (similar to deshpande)

legal declaration

no-claims deed

Mughal solar calendar, established by Emperor Akbar

landlord (similar to desai, deshmukh)

an honorific, female equivalent of thakur

an honorific title, often referring to a Rajput landlord or chief (also used to honour Hindu deities in Rajasthan)


title for a prince; gentleman (occasionally, a scholar, writer)




Choudhary Family Collection, Bada Raola Dhar, no shelfmark
Archival Collection: Purshottam Das collection

Transcribed from manuscript image

Edited by Nandini Chatterjee

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